火星上的气候是什么样的?

NASA的一个新机器人正在冒着极端气温的风险去学习有关这颗红色行星的知识。

InSight at work on the Martian surface.

         NASA的一个前往火星的新任务将第一次提供火星每天的气候报告,而现在火星上物体的严寒完全是另一个级别。依据这个任务的网站,目前为止,已记录的温度最高达到15华氏度,最低下降到零下149华氏度。

         洞察号着陆器这个机器人真可怜——它必须待在那里并记录那些令人憎恶的寒流。这个着陆器位于火星赤道北边的埃律西昂平原,NASA称此平原为“一个平坦的、光滑的平面”。根据NASA,洞察号是第一个对所谓火星的“内宇宙空间”进行彻底的研究的机器人,这个研究叫做“它的地壳、地幔和地核”,而洞察号则表示运用地震侦查、测地学和热量转移的火星内部探索。该航天局说,这个研究能够帮助确认火星和其他多岩石的行星——诸如金星、水星和我们的地球是如何在跨越40亿年中形成的。用表明其名称的工具时,这个着陆器将测量这个行星上“维持生命所必需的痕迹”——它的脉搏、反射作用和温度——这每个测量对象能告诉我们火星的构成以及它和地球的构成有什么不同。

An Australian dust devil, which likely has nothing on one of its Martian counterparts.

          这个着陆器使用一组叫做辅助负载子系统的传感器来对火星的气候作出评估,不仅允许我们在这里、在上跟随着此次任务,而且也帮助科学家们改善他们的研究。火星温度的波动能歪曲陆器的地震仪和热量探测器的测量结果,因此持续记录例如气压和风等数据能帮助科学家们判断火星镇是否真得正在发生,或者仪器只是在从不相关的变化中记录“噪音”。辅助负载子系统将在每个火星日——被称为太阳日的每秒钟测量大气压、气温、风和磁场,持续至少两个地球年,允许足够的时间去解释季节的变化。(一个太阳日大约有24小时39分钟长。)

          这个气压传感器在记录低压的旋风——被认为是小尘暴的时证明自己很有用,而小尘暴在火星的地表留下了清晰可见的条痕。根据一个印刷所出版的,我们确实在地球上看见了小尘暴,但是火星尘暴的变化范围却更加壮观——记录的高度在36英里之间,有时甚至达到直径超过300英尺的高度。

         该任务并不标志科学家们第一次作为火星的气象学家,可是它将提供一个外行星领域宽广的气候报告,这个报告也有可能从根本上帮助我们学习到更多关于我们的星球的知识。

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What’s the Weather Like on Mars?

A new NASA robot is braving extreme temperatures to learn about the Red Planet.

A NEW NASA MISSION TO the Red Planet will, for the first time, provide a daily weather report from Mars, where things right now are a whole other level of cold. So far, according to the mission’s website, recorded temperatures have maxed out at 15 degrees Fahrenheit and dipped as far as 140 degrees below zero.

So pity the InSight lander, the robot that has to sit there and register these abominable chills. The lander is located at Elysium Planitia, what NASA calls “a flat, smooth plain” just north of the planet’s equator. InSight—which stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport—is, according to NASA, the first robot to conduct an in-depth study of Mars’s so-called “inner space”: “its crust, mantle, and core.” This research, the agency said, can help establish how Mars and other rocky planets—like Mercury, Venus, and our very own—formed over four billion years ago. Using the tools indicated in its name, the lander will measure the planet’s “vital signs”: its pulse, its reflexes, and its temperature—each of which can teach us about Mars’s composition, and how it compares to Earth’s.

The lander uses a group of sensors called the Auxiliary Payload Subsystem (APSS) to take stock of the planet’s weather, allowing us to follow along with the mission from here on Earth while also helping the scientists sharpen their research. Mars’s temperature swings can distort measurements taken by the lander’s seismometer and heat probe, so continuously tracking things such as air pressure and wind can help scientists determine whether a “marsquake” is actually occurring, or whether the instruments are simply recording “noise” from unrelated changes in the weather. APSS will be measuring the air pressure, air temperature, wind, and magnetic field for every second of every Martian day—known as a sol—for at least two Earth years, allowing enough time to account for seasonal variations. (One sol runs for approximately 24 hours and 39 minutes.)

The air pressure sensors have also proven useful in tracking low-pressure whirlwinds known as “dust devils,” which have left visible streaks on the planet’s surface. While we do see our own dust devils on Earth, the Martian variety are, according to a press release, far more imposing—registering heights of between three and six miles and, sometimes, diameters of more than 300 feet.

This mission does not mark the first time that scientists have taken on the role of Martian meteorologists, but it will provide a newly extensive extraterrestrial weather report that, ultimately, may help us learn more about our own planet, too.

火星气候的简介

关于温度

火星的平均气温是-64°F。在中午的时候,火星的气温能够达到80°F。它在冬季里温度能下降到-199°F。它的气温也和海拔有关,你越往上爬,气温降低得就越快。

关于大气层

火星稀薄的大气层有96%的二氧化碳,1.93%的氩, 1.89%的氮和一些氧气和水。它的大气层里拥有直径为1.5微米的小颗粒,这就是它的外表是黄褐色的原因。它的大气压强大约是地球海平面的1%。(0.4到0.87帕)

关于氧气

在火星的两极有一大片的白色固体——干冰(固体二氧化碳)。因为二氧化碳里面含有氧元素,所以可以通过加热干冰使干冰变成气态的二氧化碳。这样做不仅能够使火星的氧气体积增加,而且也增厚火星的大气层。

关于湿度

火星的湿度跟温度的起伏紧密相连。夜晚很冷,相对的湿度能上升到80%到100%。相反,白天的湿度就相对低了很多。

关于水资源

在火星的中央地区,科学家们已经发现火星地表下仅几尺就藏有几层冰。NASA很早就发现火星的高纬度地区地下面很浅的地方就有冰,后来又发现中纬度地区也拥有同样的特点。