NASA的航天飞船洞察号(InSight)现在距离火星比其路程一半还要远。

洞察号预期在11月26日抵达火星。它被指派揭示火星的地形,去探测它的硬层、地幔和地核的深度。

“我们正在真正地在测量这个星球的深度,试图深入行星内部数以千英里的位置,目的是不仅仅只理解它的地表,而是整个行星。” 洞察号太空飞行任务的原理侦察员Bruce Banerdt说道。

洞察号在5月离开地区,携带着一个地震仪,为了去研究火星上地面的震动。这个飞船将要在火星上的埃律西昂平原区域。洞察号太空飞行任务将是探索这颗星球的内部的第一个火星任务。

行星学会汇报道,洞察号太空飞行任务原本是被计划在2016年5月启动的,但是关于地震仪的问题造成了一个拖延。

根据NASA,洞察号代表内部的探索使用着地震的侦探,大地测量学和热量转移。这个太空飞行任务被NASA的喷气推进实验室艰难地完成。

洞察号背后的在NASA的团队正在为这个飞船着陆进行准备。团队也激活并监视洞察号中对于航行、着陆、表面操作必要的子系统。根据由NASA开放的一个新闻,这些系统中包括非常敏感的科学的设备。

团队计划去探索为什么火星有那么多山峦。NASA报告称,他们希望侦查这颗行星的气温将给予洞察号什么东西导致了它的火山的组成,比如一个将近是珠穆拉玛峰3倍大小的火山奥林帕斯山。

除了月球之外,火星已经是太阳系中对于太空飞行任务来讲最受欢迎的位置。不过,探索火星中的一半尝试都以失败告终。从1996年以来的火星太空飞行任务的数据向太空探险者显示,火星比原先相信的更加和地球相像。

科学家们希望他们研究火星能够理解更多关于多岩石的行星是怎样形成的。

水星、金星、地球和火星都拥有一个多岩石的结构。根据NASA,科学家们希望对于火星内部的理解也将帮助他们搞懂太阳系外面的行星。

“我们将要去侦查它的深度,思考出地核有多大、地核由什么构成以及硬层有多大。我们运用着那个信息就将有能力回去检测我们关于火星和地球分别是如何形成的模型。” Banerdt说道。

在洞察号后面进入太空的是两个来帮助洞察号将数据传回地球的小型宇航飞船,叫做火星一号立方体。科学家们希望测试这些微型的交流仪器来帮助增大未来深度火星太空飞行任务的可能性。但是,根据NASA,如果它们不管用,它们将不会影戏洞察号太空飞行任务。

NASA的现在探索火星的漫游者机遇号有一个不确定的未来。Space.com报道说,洞察号正在去火星的路上时,出于一次大型沙尘暴的原因,机遇号的联络在6月10日被切断。机遇号于2004年11月在火星上着陆。

本文出自:

NASA Spacecraft More Than Halfway to Mars

August 30, 2018 Updated: August 31, 2018   

NASA’s InSight spacecraft is now more than halfway to Mars.

The InSight is expected to touch down on Mars on Nov. 26. It’s set to penetrate the terrain on Mars to probe the depths of its crust, mantle, and core.

“We’re actually measuring the depths of the planet, thousands of miles deep into the planet to understand the entire planet, not just the surface,” said Bruce Banerdt, the principal investigator on the InSight mission.

The InSight departed Earth in May, carrying a seismometer to study ground motions on Mars. The spacecraft is set to land on Mars’s Elysium Planitia region. The InSight mission will be the first Mars mission to explore the interior of the planet.

The InSight mission was originally scheduled to launch in March 2016, but seismometer issues caused a delay, The Planetary Society reported.

The team at NASA behind InSight is preparing for the day the spacecraft lands. The team also monitors and activates InSight subsystems necessary for cruise, landing, and surface operations. These include very sensitive scientific instruments, according to a news release from NASA.

The team plans to explore why Mars has so many mountains. They hope probing the planet’s temperature will give insight into what led to its volcano formations, such as Olympus Mons, a volcano almost three times the size of Mount Everest, NASA reported.

Besides the moon, Mars has been the most popular location for space missions in the solar system. However, half of the attempts to explore Mars failed. Data obtained from Mars missions since 1996 revealed to space explorers that Mars is more like Earth than previously believed, according to The Planetary Society.

Scientists hope that studying Mars, they can understand more about how similar rocky planets formed. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars all have a rocky structure. Scientists hope that understanding the interior of Mars will also help them understand other planets outside our solar system, according to NASA.

“We’re going to probe its depths, figure out how big the core is, what its made out of, how big the crust is and using that information we’re going to be able to go back and test our models of how Mars formed and how the earth formed,” said Banerdt.

Blasting through space behind InSight are two mini spacecraft called Mars Cube One to help InSight communicate data back to Earth. Scientists hope to test the viability of these miniaturized communications devices to help expand the possibilities of future deep space Mars missions. But if they don’t work, they will not affect InSight’s mission, according to NASA.

A NASA rover currently exploring Mars, the Opportunity, has an uncertain future. As InSight was on its way to Mars, Opportunity communications were cut off on June 10 due to a large dust storm, Space.com reported. Opportunity landed on Mars in January 2004.

Fox contributed to this report

From NTD.tv

在尘埃处在火星上时,机遇号漫游者仍然是失踪的。

这个漫游者在操控者正在准备发起联系时还没有报道。

我们在火星上看到的最大的一次沙尘暴现在正在逐渐结束,给机遇号将快速得到足够的能量去重新开启和地球的正常联系带来了希望。直到这时,自从六月以来,这个漫游者已经失去了联系,控制者也在准备好去尝试使漫游者回复NASA的深空探测网发送的命令。

和更大的好奇号漫游者不同,机遇号是太阳能的。现在的沙尘暴渐渐包围了整个火星的大气层时,为它提供能量的太阳光逐渐变淡。机遇号已经有几个月不能够得到足够的能量去维持在正常的功能,导致它转换到了睡眠的模式。一旦它经历了这次在6月的转换,这个漫游者已经在为了足够去开始和它在地球上的操作人员进行检查了。

基于大气层的状况,那些操作人员预测在不久的未来那个电源很有可能是充足的。可是,看待这个漫游者的情况会有一些无法把握的事情,这意味着它将不会和预期的那样进行联系。最简单的可能是沙尘暴在漫游者的太阳能控制板上沉积了足够的尘埃,使它一直远离充足电量的程度。那能够把它从睡眠的返回推延到最后一颗尘埃离开大气层,或者甚至造成电量停留在低的状态,直到附近的风清理了控制板。

当然,那一切假设每件事情都在正常地运行。机遇号的电量很有可能降得太低了,以至于它主板上的钟表停下来了。如果是那种情况,那么就没有方法去得知这个漫游者什么时候会努力重新连接建立联系。这是操作人员正在准备给它发送命令去建立联系,而不是等待漫游者去检验自己。

在睡眠的过程中,一些电量或联络的硬件设备也有可能出故障了。操作者预测漫游者现在待着的位置会保持足够温暖,能使一些主板上加热器将继续维持部件在被估计的温度或其以上,所以问题基本上是部件是旧的而且它们已经在火星上的14年的条件是艰苦的。

在状况足够好、能使它产生足够的电源后去回应,NASA将持续尝试去联络漫游者45天。如果在那个时段里没有响应,漫游者的操控者将只会再用几个额外的月份来被动地听它。

Opportunity rover still MIA as dust settles on Mars

The rover has not checked in as controllers are getting ready to trigger contact.

JOHN TIMMER – 9/5/2018, 1:38 AM

One of the largest dust storms we’ve ever seen on Mars is finally winding down, raising hopes that the Opportunity rover will soon be able to obtain enough power to resume normal contact with Earth. At this point, there’s been no contact with the rover since June, and controllers are getting ready to attempt to get the rover to respond to commands sent over NASA’s Deep Space Network.

Unlike the larger Curiosity rover, Opportunity is solar-powered. And as the current dust storm gradually grew to encompass the entirety of Mars’ atmosphere, the sunlight that powered it gradually faded out. For several months, Opportunity hasn’t been getting enough power to maintain normal function, causing it to shift into a hibernation mode. Once it underwent this shift back in June, the rover has been waiting for enough power to start checking in with its operators here on Earth.

Based on the atmospheric conditions, those operators expect that power is likely to be sufficient in the very near future. There are a number of uncertainties regarding the rover’s condition that could mean it won’t be making contact as expected, however. The simplest possibility is that the storm deposited enough dust on the rover’s solar panels to keep them from reaching sufficient power levels. That could delay its return from hibernation until the last of the dust is out of the atmosphere, or it could even cause the power to stay low until local winds clean the panels off.

All that, of course, assumes everything’s working normally. There’s a good chance that Opportunity‘s power dropped so low that its on-board clock shut down. If that’s the case, then there’s no way of knowing when the rover will try to re-establish contact. That’s one of the reasons that operators are preparing to send it commands to establish contact rather than waiting for the rover to try to check in.

There’s also the chance that some power or communication hardware failed during the hibernation. Operators expect that the location the rover is in will stay warm enough that some small onboard heaters will keep components at or above the temperatures they’re rated for, so the issue is primarily that the components are old and the conditions have been harsh for the 14 years they’ve been on Mars.

NASA will continue attempts to contact the rover for 45 days after the conditions are good enough for it to generate sufficient power to respond. If there’s no response during that period, the rover’s controllers will just passively listen for it checking in for several additional months.

液态水“河”在火星上被揭示

Related image

研究人员已经在火星上发现了大量现存的液态水域的证据。

他们相信,这是一个坐落在这颗行星南极的冰冠底下的湖泊,它大概有20公里(12英里)宽。

以前的研究发现了在火星地表漂浮着的、断断续续的、液态水的可能迹象,但是这是当今在火星上的第一个持续出现的水域的迹象。

那些如被NASA好奇号探测器发现的河床显示,在过去,水在火星的地表上是存在的。

不过,后来这个星球的气候由于它薄薄的大气层已经变冷了,使大部分水封锁在冰里。

这个结果特别令人兴奋,因为科学家已经用了很长时间来寻找火星上现有的液态水的迹象,可是它们亦或没有寻找到液态水,亦或产生了不明确的发现。它也将会使那些正在研究地球以外生命的可能的人们感兴趣——虽然这个结果还没有提高寻找生命的堵住。它将会激起那些正在研究地外生命可能性的人们的兴趣 – 虽然它对寻找生命还没有真正的贡献(还没发挥作用)。

这个发现是通过使用欧洲航天机构的火星快捷轨道飞行器的雷达系统Marsis去完成的。

“它有可能不是一个非常大的湖泊。”来自意大利国家天体物理学机构的罗伯特·奥罗赛教授说,他领导这个研究。

Marsis不能够确定那层水有可能有多厚,但这个研究队估计它最小有1米。

“这真的称得上是一个水域。一个湖泊,而不是在地球特定的冰川上充溢在岩石和冰之间的融水”奥罗赛教授补充道。

火星上的水域是怎么被找到的呢?

诸如Marsis这样的雷达系统通过发出一个信号并且检查什么东西反射了回来,去检测这颗行星的地表和附近的次表层。

雷达上部持续的白色线条

在白线底下,研究人员在冰下面1.5公里处发现了不同寻常的东西。

“在浅蓝色中你可以看到从底部来的反射比从表层来的反射要强烈。对我们而言,这对水的存在来讲,是能够说明问题的迹象。”奥罗赛教授说道。

这对生命而言意味着什么?

现在来讲还没有确切的东西。

来自开放大学的马尼什·帕特尔博士解释道:“我们早已经知道,火星的地表对生命是不适于居住的,就如我们知道的一样。因此,现在在火星上寻找生命是在次表层。”

“这是我们不被有害的射线照到的地方。这里能够让我们得到足够的保护。这里的温度和压强上升到更有利的高度。最重要的是,这使得对生命来讲至关重要的液态水的存在成为可能。”

“跟踪水”这个原则是太空生物学的关键——太空生物学是对地球以外潜在的生命的研究。

所以,尽管这个调查发现说明水是现在就有的,它们没有证明任何更深入的东西。

“我们没有更加接近于真正的探测到生命,”帕特尔博士告诉BBC新闻。“但是这个调研结果所能做的,是给予我们在火星上寻找水的位置范围。这就像是一个宝藏地图——除了在这种情况下将会有大量在点上做X的记号。”

水的温度和化学性质也能对任何潜在的火星生物造成一定的困难。

为了在如此冷的条件下保持着液体的状态(研究团队估计在它接触上边的冰的地方温度有零下30摄氏度到零下10摄氏度)这里的水很有可能含有大量溶解进里面的盐。

“可信的是,这里的水有可能是极其寒冷的、浓缩的盐水。这对生命而言是很有挑战性的。”一位来自英国圣安德鲁斯的天体物理学家克莱尔博士的表兄解释说。

我们接下来要做什么?

虽然它的存在为那些对火星上过去或现在生命的可能性感兴趣的人们提供了令人激动的设想,这个湖泊的特征必须先通过进一步的研究来被核实。

“现在需要做的”来自开放大学的玛特·巴尔梅博士解释道,“是在其他地域重复这个测量出来的尺寸,用来寻找相似的信号,如果可能,为了使其他的解释方法被解释——可以指望——把一些解释方法排除掉。”

科学家们在之前已经宣布,他们在南极洲的沃斯托克湖被埋藏的深处里发现了细菌的生命,但是在火星上挖掘的确会促进并形成一个既耗资也耗时的工程。

“到达那里并且得到最终的证据去说明这的确是一个湖泊,这将不是一个简单的任务。”奥罗赛教授说道。

“它将会需要在那里飞行一个能够向1.5公里厚的冰里挖掘的机器人。这一定将会需要一些科技的发展,而此时此刻这是无法得到的。”

Researchers have found evidence of an existing body of liquid water on Mars.

What they believe to be a lake sits under the planet’s south polar ice cap, and is about 20km (12 miles) across.

Previous research found possible signs of intermittent liquid water flowing on the martian surface, but this is the first sign of a persistent body of water on the planet in the present day.

Lake beds like those explored by Nasa’s Curiosity rover show water was present on the surface of Mars in the past.

However, the planet’s climate has since cooled due to its thin atmosphere, leaving most of its water locked up in ice.

The result is exciting because scientists have long searched for signs of present-day liquid water on Mars, but these have come up empty or yielded ambiguous findings. It will also interest those studying the possibilities for life beyond Earth – though it does not yet raise the stakes in the search for biology.

The discovery was made using Marsis, a radar instrument on board the European Space Agency’s (Esa) Mars Express orbiter.

“It’s probably not a very large lake,” said Prof Roberto Orosei from the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, who led the study.

Marsis wasn’t able to determine how thick the layer of water might be, but the research team estimate that it is a minimum of one metre.

“This really qualifies this as a body of water. A lake, not some kind of meltwater filling some space between rock and ice, as happens in certain glaciers on Earth,” Prof Orosei added.

How was it found?

Radar instruments like Marsis examine the surface and immediate subsurface of the planet by sending out a signal and examining what is bounced back.

The continuous white line at the top of the radar results above marks the beginning of the South Polar Layered Deposit; a filo pastry-like accumulation of water ice and dust.

Beneath this, researchers spotted something unusual 1.5km under the ice.

“In light blue you can see where the reflections from the bottom are stronger than surface reflection. This is something that is to us the telltale sign of the presence of water,” says Prof Orosei.

What does this mean for life?

Nothing definitive. Yet.

Dr Manish Patel from the Open University explained: “We have long since known that the surface of Mars is inhospitable to life as we know it, so the search for life on Mars is now in the subsurface.

“This is where we get sufficient protection from harmful radiation, and the pressure and temperature rise to more favourable levels. Most importantly, this allows liquid water, essential for life.”

This principle of following the water is key to astrobiology – the study of potential life beyond Earth.

So while the findings suggest water is present, they don’t confirm anything further.

“We are not closer to actually detecting life,” Dr Patel told BBC News, “but what this finding does is give us the location of where to look on Mars. It is like a treasure map – except in this case, there will be lots of ‘X’s marking the spots.”

The water’s temperature and chemistry could also pose a problem for any potential martian organisms.

In order to remain liquid in such cold conditions (the research team estimate between -10 and -30 Celsius where it meets the ice above), the water likely has a great many salts dissolved in it.

“It’s plausible that the water may be an extremely cold, concentrated brine, which would be pretty challenging for life,” explained Dr Claire Cousins, an astrobiologist from the University of St Andrews, UK.

What next?

While its existence provides a tantalising prospect for those interested in the possibility of past or present life on Mars, the lake’s characteristics must first be verified by further research.

“What needs to be done now,” explained Dr Matt Balme from the Open University, “is for the measurements to be repeated elsewhere to look for similar signals, and, if possible, for all other explanation to be examined and – hopefully – ruled out.

“Maybe this could even be the trigger for an ambitious new Mars mission to drill into this buried water-pocket – like has been done for sub-glacial lakes in Antarctica on Earth,” he added.

Scientists have previously claimed to find bacterial life in the buried depths of Antarctica’s Lake Vostok, but drilling on Mars would make for an ambitious project indeed.

“Getting there and acquiring the final evidence that this is indeed a lake will not be an easy task,” said Prof Orosei.

“It will require flying a robot there which is capable of drilling through 1.5km of ice. This will certainly require some technological developments that at the moment are not available.”

火星好奇号漫游者带来的六年的照片提供了这颗红色行星壮丽的景观

六个地球年之前,好奇号在火星上做了她叹为观止的降落,开始她寻找这颗红色行星能够曾经有过微生物生命的证据的任务。一些观察者,有13500个,观看这个无人控制的漫游者令人紧张的下降,这需要这个小型的、形如制桶工人的车辆去表演出只在计算机模拟里测试过的精细的动作。她需要从13000英里/小时的速度放慢下来,在Gale Crater内降落,依旧未受伤害。

好奇号的适应力是她探险的特点,浪费了预期两年的太空飞行任务,在今天继续向我们发送关于我们天空中神秘邻居引人注目的信息。这个漫游者的17个相机——从8个黑白的、躲避障碍物的Hazcams到快乐自拍、高清晰度的MAHLI相机都包括——对导航、调查和记录来讲起到了重要作用。

除了一个机器人是否能够拍摄美丽的、令人满意的照片的问题以外,由一个NASA的科学家的小队指导的好奇号拍摄了既对NASA的工作至关重要,也对临时的天文学家来讲非常有趣的照片。就像一个专业的照片制造者,这个漫游者的防溅照相机在NASA有一个录制后续工作的团队,负责将这颗星球的景色混合在一起(虽然好奇号的Mastcams摄远镜头能将150个照片迅速合成一个全部的景象)。

好奇号目前为止的发现已经取得了重大突破。她通过向我们展现火星上的水几十亿年之前是什么样的。着陆的一个月后,她记录了在这颗行星三个地点,那里暴露的基岩里的沙砾有可能曾经在嘈杂的小溪里输送过——一个基于岩石的圆滑性所得出的结论。她的照片也揭示了曾经是河床的Gale Crater有可能在水逐渐远离的地方进入干旱期。刚刚在上个过去的7月,感谢她的侦查,NASA宣布古老的湖泊曾经含有复杂的有机物分子。这个漫游者也已经证明了空气中甲烷的存在,由于这些分子的寿命只有几百年,因此这意味着那里一定有持续存在的发源地,最有可能深藏在这个星球地表下。

“这个发现是极其令人激动的,因为它显示了火星是一个当今活跃的行星,”Caltech planetary科学家和火星专家Bethany Ehlmann在一篇6月份自然地理的论文的关于好奇号关于分子的发现的内容中说到。“这个地方不是寒冷、死气沉沉的,好奇号有可能正在行星适居的区域边缘上空盘旋着。”

目前为止,好奇号为了做出这些发现只穿过了12英里,从布拉德伯里登陆点到夏普山的山脚走了5英里,这个山脚位于盖尔撞击坑的中央。在2014年9月,她开始侦查夏普山的高度,而今天,她在上升中继续采样夏普山多石头的岩层。NASA的调查者希望好奇号将从这些样本里揭晓这颗行星的气候是如何变化的。尽管一个活跃并且持续六星期的全星球沙尘暴已经完全改变了火星的容貌,这个利用核能的漫游者坚持了下来(她太阳能的姐妹机遇号已经进入睡眠状态),对她现在正处于的地方维拉鲁宾岭中采集样本、记录数据,寻找柔软的岩石来挖掘。

对于想监视这个小型探测器的那群人,NASA持续提供好奇号更新的路线和活动,也有她照片库里的添加物。对于更加专心一致的着迷者,除了机器人的老师们正在尝试将好奇号带进教室里以外,来自NASA的喷气推进实验室刚刚释放一个叫做Open Source Rover的更小的、任何人能够建造的、受好奇号影响的探测器(尽管这将花费大约2500美元)。

直到一个到达火星成功的载人太空飞行任务被允许,NASA的科学家们将继续依靠诸如好奇号的漫游者来发送回数据和照片。好奇号正在帮助对未来的那些旅程做计划,测量一个人类探险家在一个双程的探险中预期会接触到多少辐射(她的发现表明一个860天的旅途将辐射人类的比欧洲空间局已经对它的宇航员贯彻的一生的极限还要多一点)。现在,我们拥有好奇号的图片;过去6年中的一些关键性的照片列在了下面。

在Hottah里的古老的溪床

在Hottah里的远古的溪床

这个地方因加拿大的Hottah湖泊而命名,好奇号拍摄了基岩的这张图片——照片很有可能由于一个陨石的裂口而暴露、倾斜——在2012年9月24日用它的Mastcam摄远镜头(或者火星的第39个太阳日)。NASA的科学家们相信在地球上有类似的事情:粘结在沉淀的砾岩里的圆形沙砾块通过水漂浮到一个沙漠暴涨的洪水中。

耶洛奈夫海湾的构造

这个用好奇号的Mastcam摄远镜头拍摄的全景中的第111个照片显示了一个叫Yellowknife Bay的在Gale Crater里的地质洼地,在重要位置里的sheepbed泥岩。这些岩石显示了远古的湖泊和小溪的淤积物,而这些事物则说明这个地区曾经支撑过微生物生命。

Rocknest沙石那里含有几十亿个像素的景色

这个rocknest沙石的位置的由13亿个像素组成的合成物,位于好奇号采集尘埃和沙子的样本,包括896个用她的相机在2012年10月和11月的几天拍摄的照片。好奇号用她的Mastcam摄远镜头拍摄了850张彩色照片,用她的Mascam更宽的摄远镜头拍摄了21张彩色照片,用她Navcams其中的一个拍摄了25张黑白照片。那些彩色照片不是白色平衡的,显示火星上过去有照明取暖的条件。

夏普山的地垛

在接近夏普山底部的地垛和表层可以在这个合成物里被看见,由拍摄于2013年9月7日的照片创造成。这个颜色是根据地球白天的照明来调整的,虽然为了表现出火星空气中的尘埃,一些浅色被留下了。

夏普山底部的岩层

这个岩层——地面上的几层岩石——在这个好奇号在2014年3月25日(第580个太阳日)从形成物拍摄的全景图中,拍摄了向夏普山底部的下沉。根据NASA, 这说明水在夏普山更为高的部分彻底形成之前曾经朝一个流域流动。这个照片是白色平衡的,为了协助地质学家研究岩层。

Namib沙丘的顺风坡

这个stereogram能够在3D中用红蓝眼镜被看见,显示了位于Bagnold沙丘、13英尺高的Namib沙丘顺风的一边,拍摄于2015年12月17日(第1196个太阳日)。由于火星的风,巴格诺德沙丘已经被注意到每地球年由于火星的风增长1码。 就像在地球上,朝着风的沙丘的表面在顺风的一边挡住了风的时候起伏,形成了一个叫做“slip face”的深陡坡。

Murray Buttes里的好奇号自拍照

在2016年9月17日(第1463个太阳日)和2016年9月20日(第1466个太阳日),好奇号在位于夏普山的低部的Murray Buttes里Quela的位置挖掘时用MAHLI相机在这个自拍集中拍摄了60张左右的照片。在这个场景中,比好奇号后方的石头高23英尺、更深的M12方山能被在远处看见。

泥沙变干可能的证据

在2016年12月20日,好奇号在Squid Cove拍摄了这些合成的招牌,显示了泥岩上的多边形有可能是30亿年前在泥里变干的裂缝。形成物支持盖尔裂口的湖泊有可能经历过干旱期的假说。这个照片用Mastcam拍摄且是白色平衡的,为了和地球白天照明的条件一样。

巴格诺德沙丘的波浪形

这个于2017年3月24日和25日(第1647个太阳日),在Ogunquit沙滩上用好奇号的Mastcam摄远镜头拍摄的一张360度全景图中拿出来的白色平衡的巴格诺德沙丘景象,显示了深色的沙丘波纹有距它几英尺远的顶峰,比地球上的沙丘里被观察到的要远的多。能被看见:在更宽的波纹上覆盖着更小的波纹。来自Murray形成物、曾经是河床的沉淀物的基岩在重要位置上是可见的,右边的沙砾也是如此。

在沙尘暴之前和之后的德卢斯钻井

这个位置标志着工程师花费了比一年还多的时间去努力修一个损坏的发动机并造成一个叫做Feed Extended Drilling的新型挖掘技术后,好奇号的第一个能够挖掘的地点。2寸深的洞是好奇号Mastcam摄远镜头在2018年5月21日和6月17日拍摄的,这时处于火星全球的沙尘暴时期。沙尘暴的照片的鲜红色在某种程度上是由于拍摄这个照片所需要的时间更长的暴露,但是这主要因为绿色和蓝色的光遮挡了充满尘埃的云朵。

 

Six Years of Photos from Mars Rover Curiosity Offer Breathtaking Views of the Red Planet

Jacqui Palumbo

Aug 6, 2018 12:54 pm

Six Earth years ago, Curiosity made her spectacular landing on Mars, starting her mission to find evidence that the red planet could have once hosted microbial life. Some 13,500 viewers tuned in to watch the unmanned rover’s nail-biting descent, which required the Mini Cooper-sized vehicle to perform maneuvers that had only been tested in computer simulations. She needed to slow down from 13,000 miles per hour and touch down, unharmed, inside the Gale Crater.

Curiosity’s resilience has been a hallmark of her expedition, blowing past the expected two-year mission length to continue to send us fascinating information today about our mysterious celestial neighbor. The rover’s 17 cameras—which range from eight black-and-white, obstacle-avoiding Hazcams to her selfie-happy, high-resolution MAHLI camera—are instrumental to navigating, investigating, and documenting her surroundings on Mars.

Questions aside about whether or not a robot can take aesthetically pleasing photographs, Curiosity, directed by a team of NASA scientists, does capture imagery that is both critical to NASA’s work and intriguing for casual stargazers. And, like a professional image-maker, the rover-slash-photographer has a post-production team at NASA that composites her captures to show wider views of the planet (though Curiosity’s Mastcams can automatically stitch 150 images into a panoramic view).

Curiosity’s findings so far have resulted in breakthroughs in showing us what water on Mars would have looked like billions of years ago. A month after landing, she documented three sites on the planet where gravel in exposed bedrock was likely once transported through tumultuous streams—a conclusion that was made based on the roundness of the stones. Her photos have also revealed that the Gale Crater, once a lakebed, likely went through dry periods where the water receded. And just this past June, thanks to her investigation, NASA announced that the ancient lake once contained complex organic molecules. The rover has also confirmed the presence of methane in the air, which, because of the molecule’s lifespan of only a few hundred years, means there must be an ongoing source, most likely deep under the planet’s surface.

“It’s incredibly exciting, because it shows that Mars is an active planet today,” said Caltech planetary scientist and Mars expert Bethany Ehlmann, in a National Geographic article from June, about Curiosity’s molecular findings. “It’s not cold and dead—it’s perhaps hovering right on the edge of habitability.”

So far, Curiosity has only traversed a little over 12 miles to make these discoveries, journeying five miles from the Bradbury Landing point to the base of Mount Sharp, which is located centrally in the Gale Crater. In September 2014, she began inspecting the lower level of Mount Sharp, and today, she continues to sample its rocky layers as she makes a slow ascent. NASA investigators hope that Curiosity will reveal through these samples how the planet’s climate has changed. And despite an active six-week global dust storm that has entirely altered Mars’s appearance, the nuclear-powered rover has persevered (her solar-powered sibling, Opportunity, has been put to sleep), sampling and documenting the Vera Rubin Ridge, where she is currently located, looking for soft rocks to drill.

For those who want to keep tabs on the little rover that could, NASA continues to provide regular updates on Curiosity’s path and activities, as well as new additions to her image gallery. For the more dedicated fandom, as well as robotics teachers looking to bring Curiosity to the classroom, engineers from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have just released the Open Source Rover, a smaller Curiosity-inspired rover that anyone can build (though it will cost about $2,500 to do so).

Until a successful manned mission to Mars is undertaken, NASA scientists will continue to rely on rovers like Curiosity to send back data and images. Curiosity is helping to plan for those future trips, measuring how much radiation a human explorer could expect to be exposed to during a round-trip expedition (her findings show that an 860-day trip will radiate a human slightly more than the lifetime limit that the European Space Agency has implemented for its astronauts). For now, we have Curiosity’s photographs; some pivotal images from the past six years are listed below.

Ancient Streambed at Hottah

Named after Canada’s Hottah Lake, Curiosity took this photo of bedrock—likely exposed and tilted due to a meteorite impact—using its Mastcam telephoto lens on September 14, 2012 (or Sol 39, Mars’s 39th solar day). NASA scientists believe the round gravel pieces cemented in the sedimentary conglomerate were carried by water flow akin to a desert flash flood on Earth.

Yellowknife Bay Formation

This 111-image panorama, photographed with Curiosity’s Mastcam on December 24, 2012 (Sol 137), shows Yellowknife Bay, a geological depression within Gale Crater, with Sheepbed mudstone in the foreground. The rocks reveal the ancient lake and stream deposits that signify that this area could have once supported microbial life.

Rocknest Billion-Pixel Landscape

This 1.3-billion-pixel composite of the Rocknest site, where Curiosity collected dust and sand samples, comprises 896 images shot with three of her cameras over several days in October and November 2012. Curiosity took 850 color images with her Mastcam telephoto lens, 21 color images with her Mastcam wider-angle lens, and 25 black-and-white images with one of her Navcams. The color images were not white-balanced, showing lighting conditions as they were on Mars.

Mount Sharp Buttes

The buttes and layers near the base of Mount Sharp can be seen in this composite, created with images photographed on September 7, 2013 (Sol 387). The colors were adjusted to the daytime lighting of Earth, though some tint was left to show the effect of Martian dust in the air.

Strata at Mount Sharp Base

The strata—layers of rocks of the ground—in this panorama, photographed by Curiosity from the Kimberly formation on March 25, 2014 (Sol 580), is pictured dipping toward the base of Mount Sharp. According to NASA, this indicates that water once flowed toward a basin before the greater part of Mount Sharp was fully formed. This image was white-balanced to help geologists study the strata.

Downwind Side of Namib Sand Dune

This stereogram, which can be viewed in 3D with red-blue glasses, shows the downwind side of the 13-foot-tall Namib Sand Dune, located in the Bagnold Dunes, photographed on December 17, 2015 (Sol 1,196). The Bagnold Dunes have been observed to move up to one yard per Earth year due to Mars’s wind. Like on Earth, wind-facing dune surfaces ripple while the downwind side, sheltered from the wind, forms a steep slope called a “slip face.”

Curiosity Selfie in Murray Buttes

Curiosity snapped the 60-odd images in this selfie composite with the MAHLI camera on September 17, 2016 (Sol 1,463) and September 20, 2016 (Sol 1,466) while drilling at the Quela site in Murray Buttes, located on lower Mount Sharp. In the scene, the darker M12 mesa, which is 23 feet higher than the rocks behind Curiosity, can be seen in the distance.

Possible Evidence of Mud Drying

On December 20, 2016 (Sol 1,555), Curiosity took these composited photos at Squid Cove that show polygon shapes on mudstone that may have been cracks drying in the mud over 3 billion years ago. The formations support the theory that the Gale Crater lake may have undergone drying periods. Taken with the Mastcam, the image was white-balanced to the lighting conditions of daytime Earth.

Bagnold Dune Ripples

Photographed over March 24 and 25, 2017 (Sol 1,647), at Ogunquit Beach, this white-balanced scene of the Bagnold Dunes, taken from a 360-degree panorama shot with Curiosity’s Mastcam, shows dark sand ripples with crests several feet apart, much wider than what has been observed in sand dunes on Earth. Overlaid on the wider ripples, smaller ripples, with crests around 10 times closer together, can be seen. Bedrock from the Murray formation, which was once lakebed sediment, is visible in the foreground, as well as gravel on the right.

Duluth Drilling Before and During Dust Storm

This site marks the first location where Curiosity was able to drill after engineers spent more than a year trying to fix a damaged motor, resulting in a new drilling technique called Feed Extended Drilling (FED). The 2-inch-deep hole was photographed with Curiosity’s Mastcam on May 21, 2018 (Sol 2,058), and again on June 17, 2018, during the global Martian dust storm. The bright red color of the dust-storm image is due in part to the longer exposure required to take the image, but primarily because of the green- and blue-light-blocking dust cloud.

宇航员在火星上发现幽灵沙丘

环绕着火星飞行的机器人轨道飞行器已经得到了幽灵沙丘的照片。它们是一些坑洞,科学家们相信在那里曾经出现过这个红色荒漠世界里的高大月牙形沙丘。

火星是一个荒漠般的星球,非常像地球上的一些沙漠,但是比地球寒冷很多。火星的沙漠拥有大量的沙丘,从小沙丘到高耸的、峭壁般的、被细腻的沙粒覆盖的沙丘。但是——虽然大量种类的沙丘已经从轨道飞行器和火星漫游者里看见了,最近仍然十分活跃,正在逐步成为火星的风景——现在另外一种沙丘也在火星上被发现了。科学家们把它们称作幽灵山丘,它们极其古老。他们在2018年7月10日的«地球空间»里报告了这个发现。新的研究论文刚刚在地球物理研究杂志中发表。

这些沙丘在今天并不是活跃的沙丘。更确切地说,它们是以前古老的沙丘在其被侵蚀后留下来的、在地上像坑洞般的洼地。大量这样新月形的坑洞被发现了,每个大约有美国国会大厦那么大。西雅图华盛顿大学的行星地貌学家、做新研究的作家麦肯齐·戴解释道:

这些坑洞的任意一个都不足以告诉你那是一个沙丘或者它是从覆盖着大片古老沙丘的地方来的。可是当你将它们放在一起时,它们有太多火星上和地球上的沙丘的共同点以至于你必须运用一些极好的解释方法来去说明它们不仅仅只是沙丘。

幽灵沙丘是怎样形成的呢?在地球上,幽灵沙丘有可能已经部分地被熔岩或者用水传播的泥沙掩埋。对于这种火星的幽灵沙丘,当岩浆或泥沙变硬时,它们保持沙丘的轮廓。然后,沙丘剩下的上部就会被风侵蚀并将其冲刷走,只留下原来的沙丘“模型”般的轮廓。现在它们看起来像有着坚固边缘的坑洞。

火星上这些沙丘的存在对它很久以前是什么样的状况提供了更多的证据,特别是风。正如戴指出的:

关于幽灵沙丘的一件很酷的事情是它们能够确切地告诉我们火星上的风在形成时的古老过去是和现在截然不同的。那时的风与现在的不同,这一事实告诉我们火星上的环境状况在长时间里不是一成不变的,在过去的20亿年中它们已经改变了,我们需要知道这些事情去解释火星上的地质。

火星幽灵沙丘是人们在希腊平原流域和诺克提斯迷宫的轨道照片中被发现的。它们和2016年在爱达荷州东部发现的蛇江平原相似。戴和合著者大卫·凯特林仅仅在轨道里拍的诺克提斯迷宫的图片中就发现有多于480个潜在的幽灵沙丘模型,在希腊平原上的轨道图片发现有多于300个的沙丘模型。诺克提斯迷宫是一个在太阳系已知最大的峡谷,位于水手号谷西部混乱无序的高原区域。希腊平原是一个位于火星南半球的巨大火山口。它跨越的距离多于1678英里(2700公里)。它的年龄为40亿,是撞击而成的。

火星上的幽灵沙丘的形状是月牙形,就像地球上的新月形沙丘,这意味着原来的沙丘可能会和火星和地球上最普遍的类型新月形沙丘很相像。月牙形的“角”或尖端指着盛行风的方向。这种沙丘往往会在几乎或完全没有植被的平坦地势上形成。每个地点都有那么多坑洞的事实预示着:它们是曾经活跃的沙丘场的遗迹。正如戴指出的:

因为沙丘都是在同一个风的体系里形成、移动,所以你会预料到沙丘都是朝同一个方向的。因此形状和大小就能告诉我们这些是它们来自于远古的沙丘系统的特点。

对火星上幽灵沙丘的分析表明原始的沙丘是很庞大的——在诺克提斯迷宫里大约有130英尺(40米)高,在希腊平原上的大约有246英尺(75米)高。通过比较,好奇号探测器在盖尔撞击坑的夏普山山脚附近研究了一系列的沙丘。纳米布沙丘大概有16英尺(5米)高。

沙丘除了提供极关于火星上古老的环境状况,它们也可能是一个寻找过去生命证据极好的地方。正如在新论文的概要中提到的:

火星上两处古老的沙丘被部分地掩埋,然后被风侵蚀而去,留下保留关于古老环境信息的沙丘状的洞穴。这些坑洞的边缘有可能含有古老沙丘的砂岩,能够成为一个寻找古代生命的证据的好地方。洞穴的形状也告诉我们以前的风是如何运动的。

正如戴也指出的:

我们知道地球上的沙丘能够维持生命,而且地球上的沙丘和火星上的很相似。有一个问题是火星有的但是地球没有的,这是地表的辐射。如果你在一个沙丘里面或者它的底部,而且你是一个有微生物特征的生命,那个沙丘正在保护你接触过多的辐射。现在,有可能没有任何东西生活在那个地方。可是如果火星上曾经有过什么东西,这是一个比普通的地方更好的观察地点。

最下面的一行:沙丘不仅在地球上很常见,它们也被在火星、金星、土星最大的卫星泰坦,甚至在格拉西缅科彗星上。现在另外一种沙丘被人们在火星上发现——形如洞穴的古老‘鬼沙丘’。它们曾经是活跃,大部分都是被侵蚀的沙丘的遗迹。它们和今天的沙丘有极强的相似性,甚至有可能拥有这颗红色行星过去生命的证据。

本文出处:Astronomers find ‘ghost dunes’ on Mars

Robot orbiters circling Mars have acquired images of ghost dunes. They’re pits where, scientists believe, tall crescent-shaped sand dunes once existed on this red desert world.

Mars is a desert planet, a lot like some deserts on Earth, but much colder. Also just like Earth, the Martian deserts have vast dunes, ranging from small sand ripples (technically not dunes) to towering, cliff-like true dunes of fine sand. But – while various types of dunes have been seen from orbit and up close by Mars rovers, currently still active and gradually making their way across the landscape – now another kind of dune has been found on Mars as well. Scientists call these ghost dunes, and they are very ancient. They reported the finding in GeoSpace on July 10, 2018. The new research paper was just published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.

These ghost dunes are not active dunes today. Rather, they are the remains of previous ancient dunes that left pit-like depressions in the ground after they eroded away. Hundreds of these crescent-shaped pits have been discovered, each about the size of the U.S. Capitol building. As Mackenzie Day, a planetary geomorphologist at the University of Washington in Seattle and an author of the new study, explained:

Any one of these pits is not enough to tell you that it’s a dune, or from an ancient dune field, but when you put them all together, they have so many commonalities with dunes on Mars and on Earth that you have to employ some kind of fantastic explanation to explain them as anything other than dunes.

How do ghost dunes form? On Earth, ghost dunes may have been partially buried by lava or water-borne sediments. For these Martian ghost dunes, when the lava or sediments hardened, they preserved the contours of the dunes. The remaining top portions of the dunes were then eroded away by winds, which scoured them out, leaving only the “mold” outlines of the former dunes. Now they look like pits with hardened edges.

These dunes’ existence on Mars provide more clues as to what conditions were like billions of years ago, in particular, winds. As Day noted:

One of the cool things about the ghost dunes is that they tell us, for sure, that the wind on Mars was different in the ancient past, when they formed. The fact that the wind was different [when the ghost dunes formed] tells us that the environmental conditions on Mars aren’t static over long time scales, they have changed over the past couple billion years, something we need to know to interpret the geology on Mars.

The Martian ghost dunes were found in orbital images of Hellas Planitia basin and Noctis Labyrinthus. They are similar to ones discovered in the Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho in 2016. More than 480 potential dune molds were discovered in orbital images of Noctis Labyrinthus alone, and more than 300 in Hellas Planitia, by Day and co-author David Catling. Noctis Labyrinthus is a region of jumbled plateaus just west of Valles Marineris, the largest-known canyon in the solar system. Hellas Planitia is a massive 4-billion-year-old impact crater over 1,678 miles (2,700 km) across in the southern hemisphere.

The shapes of the ghost dunes on Mars are crescents, just like barchan dunes on Earth, meaning that the original dunes would have been very similar to barchan dunes, the most common type on both Mars and Earth. The “horns” or tips of the crescents point in the direction of the prevailing wind. This type of dunes tends to form on flat terrain where there is little or no vegetation. The fact that there are so many of these pits in each location points to them being the remains of once-active dune fields. As Day noted:

They are all going the same way, which you would expect for dunes because they are all migrating and forming in the same wind regime. So just the shape and size tell us that these are features that are coming from an ancient dune system.

Analysis of the ghost dunes on Mars indicates that the original dunes were quite large – about 130 feet (40 meters) tall at Noctis Labyrinthus and 246 feet (75 meters) tall at Hellas basin. By comparison, the Curiosity rover has studied a series of dunes near the base of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater. The striking Namib Dune is about 16 feet (5 meters) tall.

As well as providing fascinating clues about ancient environmental conditions on Mars, these ghost dunes may also be a good place to search for evidence of past life. As mentioned in the summary in the new paper:

Ancient dunes in two places on Mars were partially buried and then eroded away, leaving behind dune-shaped pits that preserve information about the ancient environment. These pits may contain ancient dune sandstones around the edges of the pits and could be a good place to look for evidence of ancient life. The shapes of the pits also tell us how the winds behaved in the past.

And as Day noted also:

We know that dunes on Earth can support life, and dunes on Earth are very similar to dunes on Mars. One problem that Mars has that Earth doesn’t is the surface radiation. If you are inside a dune, or at the bottom of a dune, and you are microbial life, the dune is protecting you from a lot of that radiation. There is probably nothing living there now. But if there ever was anything on Mars, this is a better place than average to look.

Bottom line: As well as being common on Earth, dunes have also been found on Mars, Venus, Titan and even comet 67P. Now another type of dune has been discovered on Mars – “ghost dunes,” the pit-like remains of ancient, once-active dunes which have mostly eroded away. They bear a strong similarity to present-day dunes and may even hold clues to past life on the red planet.

 

 

在模拟火星环境的条件下成功种植马铃薯使在火星上种粮食成为可能。

NASA在送宇航员到火星之前需要想出他们在那里如何吃饭。因此,美国太空总署和秘鲁的一个研究小组专注地投入在马铃薯的研究项目上面。

2017年3月初,国际马铃薯研究中心宣布经过一年的时间后,他们能够成功地在一个模拟设计出火星严酷环境的土壤里种植马铃薯。

在地球上,我们种植粮食的陆地上包含营养丰富的土壤、长时间的光照和温暖和一个拥有大量二氧化碳的大气层。提供植物水,粮食拥有它们所有需要的事物。但是在火星上,土壤是含盐量高且松散的,而且缺少诸如氮气等植被生长需要的化学物。尽管火星的赤道那里在夏季能达到温和的70华氏度(21摄氏度),可是平均温度却只有零下80华摄氏度。

2016年2月份,工程师造出一小块模仿火星一种版本的气候的土地。用秘鲁潘帕斯德拉乔亚沙漠里的土壤——跟火星的土壤很相像,因为那里是很少生命可以存活的地方,有机混合物也几乎不存在。他们也创造出和火星相似的条件。

研究人员种下能够抵挡住含盐量高的土壤的土豆种子,给它们加上额外营养的水。一年之后,这个团队报告他们已经成功地种植小产量的马铃薯——意味着他们在火星上也有可能实现这个目标。

他们只证明了在火星的条件下马铃薯很有可能能生存下去。稍微调整后勤的工作,比如想出如何携带种子、水和植物的营养对我们的邻居行星完全是另一件事。

Before it can send astronauts to Mars, NASA needs to figure out how to feed them there. To work that out, the US space agency teamed up with a research group in Peru focused exclusively on spud research.

Last week, CIP announced that after a year, it had been able to successfully grow potatoes in a plot of land engineered to mimic Mars’ harsh environment.

On Earth, the land where we grow crops typically contains nutrient-rich soil, long periods of sunlight and warmth, and a carbon-dioxide rich atmosphere. Provided plants get water, crops have everything they need to grow. But on Mars, soil is salty, loose, and lacking chemicals like nitrogen, which plants need to grow. Although it can get to a balmy 70°F (21°C) near the Martian equator in the summer, the average temperature is around -80°F.

In February 2016, engineers created a small plot of land imitating a version of Martian climate where plants could possibly grow. They used soil from the Pampas de La Joya desert in Peru—similar to Martian soil because it is home (pdf) to very little life and few organic compounds. They also created atmospheric conditions similar to Mars.

Researchers planted seeds for potatoes that had been bred to withstand salty soil and gave them water that had been fortified with extra plant nutrients. After a year, the team reported they had successfully grown a small crop of potatoes—meaning they could probably grow on Mars, too.

They only prove that it’s likely possible for potatoes to survive in Martian conditions. Fine-tuning logistics, like figuring out how to bring the seeds, water, and plant nutrients to our neighboring planet is something else entirely.

 

NASA Ready to Study Heart of Mars(NASA准备去研究火星的内部)

NASA 将要走上研究火星内部的征程。

NASA安排于最早在5月5日用自己的Geodesy和InSight号(一个固定的着陆器)在火星表面上降落,将会成为第一个献身于探索火星深深的内部的任务。它也会成为自从阿波罗登月器后 NASA第一个将一个地震仪(一种测量地震的仪器)放在另外一个行星的土壤上的任务。

InSight号携带了一批敏感度高的仪器去收集数据。和一个探测器的任务不同,这些仪器需要一个固定的着陆器,它能够被小心地放置在火星表面上和表面下。

在某种 意义上,火星是外部行星的下一个门——一个附近的例子,展现出气体、尘埃和热如何混合、排列在一起,变成一个星球。仔细的观测火星内部的深处将让科学家们懂得它的地壳、覆盖物和地核与地球的是多么的不同。

NASA is about to go on a journey to study the interior of Mars.

Scheduled to launch as early as May 5, NASA’s Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight), a stationary lander, will be the first-ever mission dedicated to exploring Mars’ deep interior. It also will be the first NASA mission since the Apollo moon landings to place a seismometer, a device that measures quakes, on the soil of another planet.

InSight carries a suite of sensitive instruments to gather data and, unlike a rover mission, these instruments require a stationary lander from which they can carefully be placed on and below the Martian surface.

In a sense, Mars is the exoplanet next door – a nearby example of how gas, dust and heat combine and arrange themselves into a planet. Looking deep into Mars will let scientists understand how different its crust, mantle and core are from Earth.

火星气候的简介

关于温度

火星的平均气温是-64°F。在中午的时候,火星的气温能够达到80°F。它在冬季里温度能下降到-199°F。它的气温也和海拔有关,你越往上爬,气温降低得就越快。

关于大气层

火星稀薄的大气层有96%的二氧化碳,1.93%的氩, 1.89%的氮和一些氧气和水。它的大气层里拥有直径为1.5微米的小颗粒,这就是它的外表是黄褐色的原因。它的大气压强大约是地球海平面的1%。(0.4到0.87帕)

关于氧气

在火星的两极有一大片的白色固体——干冰(固体二氧化碳)。因为二氧化碳里面含有氧元素,所以可以通过加热干冰使干冰变成气态的二氧化碳。这样做不仅能够使火星的氧气体积增加,而且也增厚火星的大气层。

关于湿度

火星的湿度跟温度的起伏紧密相连。夜晚很冷,相对的湿度能上升到80%到100%。相反,白天的湿度就相对低了很多。

关于水资源

在火星的中央地区,科学家们已经发现火星地表下仅几尺就藏有几层冰。NASA很早就发现火星的高纬度地区地下面很浅的地方就有冰,后来又发现中纬度地区也拥有同样的特点。

Volunteer to Settle Mars

Who Are We?

We are students of the JianHua Experimental School. We are a English team. Our slogan(口号) is “King of Europe”

Value of This Volunteering :

1.Let more and more people in China know the mars immigration(火星移民)

2.Help China be the first country to live on mars.

Why Will We Do It?

If we don’t do it, China will  fall behind the world because this century(世纪) is the age of mars immigration(火星移民的时代). Moreover(而且), the  US is already had  Elon Musk and his SpaceX.

What  Will We Do?

We will publish some articles on this website. They’re about:

1. How to increase the thickness(厚度) of the atmosphere on mars?

2. What plants can probably survive(生存) on mars?

3. What probes(探测器) can detect( 探测)more exactly about the information of mars, like the atmosphere(大气层), the water, the climate(气候), the soil(土壤) and so on.

4.  What’s rockets can be lighter(更轻), cheaper(更便宜) and quicker?

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

Question 1: Why must human beings study about how to get and live on mars?

Question 2: Why we can settle mars, not the other seven biggest planets?

Question 3: When probably will the first crowds(群) of human race live on mars?

Answers of The Questions

Answer 1: It’s because people want to do something to make human race a long-living species(物种), for that protecting(保护) the environment is great but not enough.

Answer 2: It’s because mars is the most similar(最像) to earth. The other planets are too cold, too hot, haven’t seen traces of water or can’t produce(产生) oxygen(氧气).

Answer 3: They will probably live on mars around 2025.

Finally, we hope those who are interested in this issue(问题)join “the king of Europe”!

Thank you !

附件:

volunteer海报的演讲稿

 

自从2016年好奇号探测器第一次钻了一个火星上的岩石

在一年多前马达的一次失误后,好奇号探测器第一下成功钻下了一块岩石。

它比以前发射的探测器大好多,差不多有一辆轿车那么大。并且它最与众不同的一点是核能电池,能够坚持14年时间,不像以前的太阳能电池用一段时间就没电了。它可以探测火星上的土壤、岩石,判断哪些是对人类能产生危害的物质,拍摄出清晰的照片,将这些信息传回地球或火星上的卫星。